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MLA Basics

Note: MLA abbreviates all months excect for May, June and July. For example, “February” is “Feb.”

Table of Contents

Book

Structure:

Last, First M. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published. Medium.

Example:

Carley, Michael J. 1939: The Alliance That Never Was and the Coming of World War II. Chicago: Dee, 1999. Print.

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Chapter/Anthology

Structure:

Last, First M. “Section Title.” Book/Anthology, Ed. First M. Last. Edition. City: Publisher, Year Published. Page(s). Medium.

Example:

Melville, Herman. “Hawthorne and His Mosses.” The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1989. 5-25. Print.

*Note: Essays, shorts stories, and poems are put in quotes. Works originally published independently such as plays and novels generally are italicized.
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Magazine

Structure:

Last, First M. “Article Title.” Magazine Title Date Month Year Published: Page(s). Medium.

Example:

Pressman, Aaron. “Bottom Fishing in Rough Waters.” BusinessWeek 29 Sept. 2008: 27. Print.

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Newspaper

Structure:

Last, First M. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title [City] Date Month Year Published: Page(s). Medium.

Example:

Campoy, Ana. “Gasoline Surges in Southeast After Ike.” The Wall Street Journal 23 Sept. 2008: A14. Print.

*Note: Only include [City] if it is not in the title. Do not include if the newspaper is well known or nationally published.
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Journal

Structure:

Last, First M., and First M. Last. “Article Title.” Journal Title Series Volume.Issue (Year Published): Page(s). Medium.

Example:

Bharadwaj, Parag, and Katerine T. Ward. “Ethical Considerations of Patients with Pacemakers.” American Family Physician 78 (2008): 398-99. Print.

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Website

Structure:

Last, First M. “Article Title.” Website Title. Website Publisher, Date Month Year Published. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.

Example:

Satalkar, Bhakti. “Water Aerobics.” Buzzle.com. 15 July 2010. Web. 16 July 2010.

*Note: URL is optional unless the source cannot be located without it or if required by your instructor.
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Online Database

Structure:

Last, First M. “Article Title.” Journal Title Series Volume.Issue (Year Published): Page(s). Database Name. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.

Example:

Ahn, Hyunchul, and Kyoung-jae Kim. “Using Genetic Algorithms to Optimize Nearest Neighbors for Data Mining.” Annals of Operations Research 263.1 (2008): 5-18. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.

*Note: URL is optional unless the source cannot be located without it or if required by your instructor.
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TV/Radio

Structure:

“Episode.” Contributors. Program. Network. Call Letter, City, Date. Medium.

Example:

“The Saudi Experience.” Prod. Mary Walsh. Sixty Minutes. CBS. WCBS, New York, 5 May 2009. Television.

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Film

Structure:

Title. Dir. First M. Last and First M. Last. Perf. First M. Last, First M. Last, and First M. Last. Distributor, Year Published. Media Type.

Example:

The Dark Knight. Dir. Christopher Nolan. Perf. Christian Bale, Heath Ledger, and Aaron Eckhart. Warner Bros., 2008. DVD.

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Sound Recording

Structure:

Contributors. “Song.” Album. Band. Manufacturer, Year. Medium.

Example:

Corgan, Billy, and Butch Vig. “Today.” Siamese Dream. Smashing Pumpkins. Virgins Records America, 1993. CD.

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Visual Art / Photograph

Structure:

Last, First M. Title. Year Created. Medium. Museum/Institution, Location.

Example:

Picasso, Pablo. Three Musicians. 1921. Oil on panel. Museum of Modern Art, New York.

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Lecture / Speech

Structure:

Last, First M. “Speech.” Meeting / Organization. Location. Date. Description.

Example:

Obama, Barack H. “Inaugural Address.” 2009 Presidential Inaugural. Capitol Building, Washington, D.C. 20 Jan. 2009. Address.

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Interview

MLA:

Interviewee. “Title.” Interview by interviewer. Publication information. Medium.

Example:

Abdul, Paula. Interview by Cynthia McFadden. Nightline. ABC. WABC, New York. 23 Apr. 2009. Television.

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Cartoon

Structure:

Last, First M. “Title.” Cartoon / Comic strip. Publication information. Medium.

Example:

Trudeau, Garry. “Doonesbury.” Comic strip. New York Times 8 May 2008: 12. Print.

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